Sëmundje më së shumti të transmetueshme nga ushqimi

Sëmundje më së shumti të transmetueshme nga ushqimi

By ALSA blog | | 11/01/2019

It is often believed that the greatest health hazards come from chemical compounds (eg pesticides) in food. In reality, most food infections are attributable to biological agents.
It is known that there are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa, whereas they are usually not transmitted from human to human. These diseases, called zoonoses, include a heterogeneous group of infections, which may be bacterial, viral, parasitic and caused by unconventional agents (prions).
The known zoonoses are very numerous (over 200 according to WHO) and their study is one of the most interesting areas of human and veterinary medicine.
The transmission of disease to humans can be caused by food derived from infected animals or healthy carriers of microorganisms, but also by contamination of the food during the production process or the phases of conservation and domestic preparation.
That said, the microbiological safety of foods on the market and the prevention of transmission of zoonotic agents is a top priority for health professionals in the field of food safety.
In fact there are many measures to control existing zoonotic infections: eradication or control plans on live animals, self-control by food business operators and application of food safety microbiological criteria (EC regulation 2073/2005). >

Below is a non-exhaustive list of some food-borne diseases:

Botulism manifests itself with nervous disorders with flaccid paralysis; the intoxication, sometimes fatal, is caused in the adult by the ingestion of the preformed toxin in the food of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism cases are frequently attributable to the consumption of improperly sterilized houseplants.

Brucellosis or Maltese or undulating fever
Severe illness with fever appearing at intervals, headache and intense sweating, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, mainly from the species melitensis and abortus. Brucellosis has for years been the subject of an eradication plan in cattle and sheep and goats. Consumption of raw milk and fresh cheeses made from raw milk can be risky. Therefore, when you have fresh milk, before heating it should be heated until boiling.

Caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, is a zoonotic disease among the most important in the number of cases in the European Union. Associated mainly with the consumption of poorly cooked poultry meat, it manifests itself with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

The etiologic agent is represented by Listeria monocytogenes, a very resistant ubiquitous environmental bacterium. Symptoms of the disease can range from mild flu-like syndrome in immunocompetent adults to significantly more severe manifestations in the pregnant woman: abortion and neurological damage to the unborn child. Among the foods that can transport L.moncytogenes the ready-to-eat products based on meat and fish and fresh cheeses.

Salmonellae are bacteria that live in the intestine of humans and animals, even healthy carriers. Salmonellosis is a very important zoonosis in number of cases and severity of symptoms. It is associated with the consumption of poultry meat, raw eggs and derived products, red meat, ready-to-eat foods and dairy products.

The tapeworm (T. solium, T. saginata) or solitary worm lives as a parasite in the human intestine. The man is infested by eating, raw or undercooked, the pork and beef containing these larvae
The disorders that the adult parasite causes in humans are: nausea, difficulty in digestion, hunger and weight loss.
Prevention: consume well cooked or seasoned pork and beef (2-3 months). If you want to eat raw, it is advisable to freeze them at -10 ° for a week.

Severe disease caused by the larval form of a worm of the genus Trichinella, which is mainly found in the muscular masses, but can also be localized in other organs. Man can contract the disease by eating raw or insufficiently cooked meat from pig, wild boar or horse. The EC Regulation 2075/2005 prescribes a specific examination on all carcasses slaughtered of these species before being placed on the market.

Tuberculosis affects many animal species among which, prominently from the epidemiological point of view for human health, the bovine species. It has been the subject of a Community-level eradication plan for years and all farms producing milk for human consumption are controlled for this disease.